The 2022 corruption report on Ghana highlights the concerning problem of bribery in the country’s public sector. The report reveals that police officers are the most vulnerable to bribery among all public officials, with a high prevalence rate of 53.2 percent.
Conducted in collaboration with the Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ) and the Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), the survey, carried out by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), offers a troubling insight into the scope of corruption.
Ghana Immigration Service (GIS) Officers and Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA) customs officers are also prominently placed on the list, with bribery rates of 37.4 percent and 33.6 percent, respectively.
Interestingly, elected government representatives have a significantly lower involvement in bribery, with a mere 2.9 percent prevalence.
Bribes offered to public officials take various forms. Cash payments dominate, accounting for almost 9 out of 10 cases in Ghana (84.8 percent). Comparatively, exchanges involving food, drink, or services are less frequent. However, in rural areas, there is a higher occurrence of bribes in the form of food and drink (17.8 percent) than in urban areas (10.1 percent).
The total value of cash bribes paid in Ghana is nearly equivalent to one-third of the Ministry of Education’s 2021 budget.
Cash bribes in urban areas are 1.5 times higher than in rural areas, with the average national bribe amounting to 348 Ghanaian cedis. With approximately 17.4 million bribes paid in 2021, the annual total of cash bribes to public officials in Ghana reaches around 5 billion Ghanaian cedis. This sum corresponds to 32.9 percent of the Ministry of Education’s 2021 budget.